1: How to Prevent Nosocomial Infections?
Nosocomial infections are those infections that a patient contacts while in the hospital, but the infection was not originally diagnosed of the patient.
Health workers, Care givers, patients and even those taking care of the sick ones are liable to be infected if proper aseptic measures are not taken.
The term nosocomial comes from two Greek words “nosus”= “disease” + “komeion”= “to take care of”. So, it is a disease or infection from being taken care of.
These noscomial infections are also called Hospital Acquired Infection or Hospital Associated Infections (HAI).
Studies have shown that Nosocomial infections are kill more than the originally diagnosed ailments of the patients. So the counter attack was begun to save lives and patient distress.
The most common infections were :
- Bloodstream infections ( BSI)
- Urinary tract infections
- Surgical site infections
Mechanical ventilation, catheter insertion, some invasive procedures and neonatal departments are more frequent sources of nosocomial infections.
World Health Organization’s Five “Moments” for Hand Hygiene.
- Before touching a patient – to protect the patient from harmful germs carried on your hands.
- Before aseptic procedures – to protect the patient against harmful germs, including the patient’s own germs.
- After body fluid exposure/risk – to protect yourself and the health care environment from the harmful patient’s germs.
- After touching the patient.
(There are two moments before and three moments after touching the patient)
- Wash hands with soap and water when they are stained with blood or fluids.
- An alcohol based hand rub should be used when the hands are not visibly dirty but have come in contact with a patient or before touching the patient.
- All hand jewelries should be removed before engaging in surgical hand preparation.
- Finger nails should be trimmed to 0.5cm or les with no nail polish or artificial nails.
- Long sleeves should not be worn, ties and house coats should be discouraged, and wearing scrubs is encouraged.
Hand hygiene is one of the most important ways to prevent the spread of infection. Health workers should mark out, obey and adhere to measures used to prevent infection. There should be zero tolerance for non-compliance with proven prevention measures.
Ways To Manage Diabetes
2: What is Diabetes ?
Diabetes is a health condition where the body either cannot produce insulin or cannot properly use the insulin it produces to function. In 2015 it was recorded that about 1 Billion people in the world were diagnosed with diabetes of either type 1 or type 2. This may be caused by the increasing starchy foods we consume on a daily basis.
Pancreas is the organ that releases hormones into the digestive system. The hormones releases what is called insulin which enables cells to take sugar to use as energy or store up as fat. This activity of the pancreas determines the sugar level in the body.
Types of Diabetes
There are two major types of diabetes. Type 1 and 2
Diabetes 1 surfaces when the immune system mistakenly destroys the beta cells present in the pancreas insulin. Insignificant insulin is released to the body. This in turns causes the buildup of sugar in the cell that disturbed proper function of the body. This is mostly found in children and adolescents.
Diabetes 2 is a situation where the body cannot Properly produce the required insulin. This enhances the buildup of sugar in the cells. This case is found mostly in adults and sometimes in children also.
Studies shows that patients are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if they are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes.
How to manage Diabetes
- Eat healthy. Eating healthy for a diabetic’s means cutting down carbs and fatty foods and consuming more of vegetables and proteins. One may consider diets such as the ketosis or palaodiets. Coconut flour, wheat flour and tigernut flour are great substitutes for diabetics who crave for some cookies and bread or pastries.
- Regular Checkup. Don’t miss your doctor’s appointments. Check your insulin level and adhere religiously to your doctor’s DOS and DON’TS.
- Exercises. Simple exercises like walking, and cycling will help you a great deal. Glucose gets taken into the body through muscles. Anytime you exercise, you help your muscles to more easily get the glucose out of the blood and into your body where it is used for energy.
- If your diabetes was caused by obesity or overweight, you can lose weight and start to exercise to stop the progression of diabetes.
- Avoid alcohol. Reduce the intake of alcohol and also quit smoking, if you are a smoker. While moderate amounts of alcohol may cause blood sugar to rise, excess alcohol can actually decrease your blood sugar level — sometimes causing it to drop into dangerous levels, especially for people with type 1 diabetes.
3: Early Signs of Lump and Breast Cancer.
A lump is just one of the signs of the breast cancer in men or women. Breast cancer can come in many different ways. It can cause changes to the skin on and around the breast. Anyone that sees any of these signs should see a physician.
There may be no signs in some cases, but a regular breast cancer screening test is advisable for early detection and treatment.
Signs of Breast Cancer
1. Changes In The Texture Of The Skin:
Breast cancer can cause a total change in the texture of the skin. This happens when the skin cells are affected. This can be in form of scaly skin around the nipple and areola. It will look dry and dark tanned. It can be in form of skin thickening in any part of the breast. These changes may also cause itching, which people often associate with breast cancer.
2. DISCHARGE FROM THE NIPPLE :
Once a discharge is observed from the nipple, it is important to seek medical attention. The discharge can be thick or thin , and may have different colors ranging from clear to milky to yellow, even green or red. It is normal to for mothers that are breastfeeding to have a milky discharge from the nipples, but apart from that, there are other factors that can cause nipple discharge, they include: breast infections, side effects of birth control pills, side effect of certain drugs, some medical conditions, and variations in body physiology.
This in most cases is a sign of inflammatory breast cancer. Cancer cells can cause a buildup of lymph fluid that causes swelling in the breast. Anyone who notices this should consult a doctor. Some doctors refer to this as “peau d’orange
4. ENLARGEMENT OF THE LYMPH NODE:
Lymph nodes are small, rounded collections of immune system tissue that filter fluid and arrest harmful cells. These include bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. If a cancer cell affects the breast, it first travels to the under arm lymph node region on the same side of the affected breast. This can cause swelling in that region. Swelling can also occur in the collarbone. They usually feel like small, firm, swollen lumps and may be tender to the touch. However, lymph tissue may also change due to breast infections or other illnesses.
5. NIPPLE PAINS:
Breast cancer can cause changes in the cells of the skin and this can lead to the feelings of pain, tenderness, and discomfort in the breast.
Breast cancer can cause the entire breast or some part of the breast to swell. Although it is possible for people to have breasts that are slightly different in size at all times, this swelling would cause a change from their usual breast size.
7. REDNESS: Breast cancer can cause changes in color of the breast skin .It may appear discolored , bruised reddish,
purple or have a bluish tint. Any sign of this should be given immediate medical attention.
However, people should note that age, hormonal imbalance, menstrual cycle, injury, and other forms of infection can cause some kind of changes in the breast. It is better to seek a medical attention whenever one experiences changes in ones breast.
4: Kissing Infections and Diseases!!!
Kissing as we all know happens mostly between lovers. It has its own feelings. But kissing can also transmit some disease causing bacteria and viruses from one person to another through the saliva.
- Cold: Different viruses can cause cold. It is spread by direct contact with the virus either through airborne or with secretions from infected person.
- Glandular fever: This is also known as the kissing disease. “Infectious mononucleosis” is a viral infection commonly called Glandular fever. It is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. The virus is spread through coming in contact with the saliva of an infectious person.
- Herpes : Herpes may be incurable sometimes, but it doesn’t raise alarm about life and death. Most people have herpes simplex 1(HSV-1) which is referred to as the oral kind of herpes and herpes simplex 2(HSV-2) referred to as the genital kind of herpes.
The HSV-1 sometimes do create cold sores around the lips. When kissing one with herpes, and the person has lesions on the mouth, herpes can be transmitted.
- Hepatitis B- As surprising as it sounds; hepatitis can be transmitted through kissing. A person may be infected when kissing if they have open wound, sores, or lesions around the mouth. Infection occurs when infected blood or saliva comes in contact with another person’s bloodstream or mucous membranes.
- Warts: Warts found in the mouth can be transmitted through direct kissing.
- Sores in the mouth are one of the symptoms of syphilis disease. The sores are always round and open making it transmissible through kissing. So, if one has syphilis related sores in the mouth, the person can easily transmit the virus to their kissing partner if the partner has wound in the mouth. The same goes for HIV, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea.
- Gingivitis: Gingivitis is a mild kind of gum disease. It is caused by bacteria. The bacteria can be transmitted from one person to another through kissing. The best way to protect oneself is by maintaining good oral hygiene.
- Meningitis: Some meningitis are caused by bacteria while some are caused by virus. Close contact with one who has viral meningitis can result in you contacting the virus but it hardly turn to meningitis. But for bacterial meningitis, it is usually the cause of outbreaks because the bacteria can be spread through close contact with infected person. The bacteria can also be contacted through kissing . This bacterial meningitis has higher percentage of causing meningitis in the host unlike the viral meningitis. Antibiotics can be used to prevent meningitis in people that have had contact with the infected ones or when there is an outbreak.
5: Dangers of Reusing Condom
Don’t Wash or Rinse Condoms to Reuse.
As weird as it sounds, people are rinsing and reusing condoms. Condoms are strictly for one time use, and should be disposed of properly after use.
Statistical evidence from Centre for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that people especially the se*ually active ones engage in this unbelievable act, hence they have issued out a warning for people to stop reusing their already used condom.
A fresh condom should be used in each round of fresh s*x act.
Studies have shown that when condoms are used constantly and properly, they are highly effective the prevention of STDs (se*ually transmitted disease), Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Etc.
DANGERS OF REUSING CONDOMS
1. When male condoms are reused, the later becomes weak causing tears that may increase the risk of getting pregnant and transferring STDs.
2. When Condoms are reused, they introduce micro organism into the s*x organs of the person or individual.
Dangers of Reusing Condom
3. Female reused condoms are breeding ground for microorganisms and can cause serious infection in the body of the woman.
4. Water used in washing the condom maybe dirty, and so this can also cause infection.
5. Your chances of been infected with stds and other diseases increases.
Se*ually active people should try and stop reusing condoms .Also, they should avoid storing condoms in their wallet, be cautious of the expiry date and never use one condom at a time.