Menstrual period for women normally lasts for 28 days, but this varies between individuals. Irregular menstruation is when the length of the cycle is more than 35 days or if the duration varies.
A menstruation occurs when part of the endometrium ,which is the lining of the uterus is shed. This appears as bleeding from the womb that is released through the v=g=na.
- Hormonal influences – The life cycle changes such as puberty, menopause, pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding can cause irregularity in menstruation. During pregnancy and menopause, menstruation ceases and most women do not have periods while they are breastfeeding.
Drugs as contraceptives can also alter the menstrual period of a woman. A first time user of contraceptive can experience small bleeds that are lighter and shorter than the normal period flow .An intrauterine device (IUD) can cause spotting between periods.
Other changes that can cause irregular periods include – extreme weight loss, extreme weight gain, emotional stress, eating disorders, and endurance exercise.
- Complications- Other complicated health issues can also cause irregular menstruation, sometimes, they lead to fertility issues.
- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a number of small fluid filled sacs develop in the ovaries of a woman.
- A thyroid hormone disorder – this can cause irregular periods. The thyroid hormone produces those hormones that affect the body metabolism.
- Cervical, Uterine cancer or cancer of the womb can but in rare cases cause bleeding between periods or during se*ual interc*urxe.
- Endometriosis is a condition in which cells that are normally inside the uterus, starts to grow outside the uterus called endometrial cells. This means that the lining of the inside of the uterus is now found growing outside the uterus. These endometrial cells are being shed every month during menstruation .If the released blood get stucked in surrounding tissues, it can damage the tissue , causing severs pains, irregular periods and sometimes infertility.
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)- is an infection of the female reproductive system. Among women, it is found to be the most common complication of se*ually transmitted diseases. When detected early enough, it can be treated with antibiotics. If not treated, it can damage the fallopian tubes leading to pain.
- PUBERTY AND MENOPAUSE: irregular periods that occur during puberty or as the woman approaches menopause do not usually require treatment.
- PCOS and Obesity : PCOS and overweight can cause irregular menstruation. Hence, loosing weight may help stabilize menstruation. A lower weight means that the body does not need to produce so much insulin. This will reduce the testosterone level in the body and then provide a better chance of ovulating.
- Thyroid problems: Treatment for this ailment must be prescribed by a doctor. The treatment can be either with medication, surgery or radioactive iodine therapy.
- Relaxation techniques, stress management and visiting a therapist can help reduce irregular menstruation induced by stress and eating disorders.
- If birth control pills being taken can cause irregular menstruation, other birth control options should be provided to the women.
- Lastly, a doctor may prescribe a certain drug that lowers the level of insulin in the body in order to ensure ovulation and regular periods.